HRM Practices in Private Sector Financial Organizations of Bangladesh: An Analysis on Employee Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance

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Md. Azmir Hossain*

 

Abstract: In the recent period of time Human Resource Management (HRM), Organizational Behaviour and Industrial Psychology practices became so familiar and important in every business sector of Bangladesh. The success of every organization is coming through the performance of the HRs of that organization. The effectiveness of the employees performance is largely depends upon the HR policy and practices. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction in the private sector financial organizations of Bangladesh. The field of the study is based on the relationship between emotional intelligence, job performance and job satisfaction of the employees. For conducting this research, 55 respondents of different private sector financial organizations have been selected, from which 50 responds properly and the questionnaire consisted of different questions on HRM dimensions which has found a positive relationship among employee satisfaction, emotional intelligence and job performance of the employees.

 

Key words: HRM, Satisfaction, Relationship, Organisational Behaviour, Job Performance, Industrial Psychology, Employee Perceptions, Emotional Intelligence.

 

Abbreviations: HRM=Human Resource Management, JP=Job Performance, EI= Emotional Intelligence, IQ= Intellectual quotient, OB= Organizational Behavior

 

Introduction

Human Resource Management (HRM) is not just to hire people. Effective HRM practices support business goals and objectives. HRM is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic development of a highly committed and capable workforce using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. Every organization operates its activities with the support of human resource which includes top level managers, executives, supervisors and other employees.1 Lack of efficient HRM practices reduces manager’s satisfaction towards their organizations that affect their commitment to work. Emotional intelligence (EI) is widely discussed in Industrial Psychology and Organisational Behaviour (OB). It is a new concept. The concept is very old but in the last few years it has gained popularity among academics and researchers as well. The pioneer researchers argued that “EI is twice as important as IQ”. EI is a critical element for an individual’s effectiveness as well as for improving job performance.2 It includes self-awareness, self-management, social skills, organizational growth and relationship management. The ingredients of excellent performance are technical skills, IQ and EI. EI is more significant than the others for jobs at all levels. EI is positively related to one’s quality and effectiveness that is essential for effective leadership and facilitates individual adaptation and change.3 Moreover, EI can contribute more to career advancement through job performance to enrich manager satisfaction. There is a little research examining the relationship among EI, employee satisfaction and job performance.

 

 

 

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* Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business Studies, Dhaka International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Correspondence to: Md. Azmir Hossain, E-mail: azmirdu@gmail.com (01915-352491)

 

Therefore, future research should be done to explore this area to fill the gap between knowledge and practice. 4 It is important to note that researches on EI and job performance have been conducted in the developed countries like USA, UK, Canada, and Australia and in some other parts of the world. The literature has revealed that in-depth research on EI and its relationship with job performance in a developing country, like Bangladesh is largely absent. This gap motivates the researcher to investigate and analyse the relationship between EI and job performance in the organisations of Bangladesh so that it can contribute in the field of HRM, Industrial Psychology and Organizational Behaviour.5

 

 

Scope of the Study

 

This study covers the HRM, OB and Industrial Psychology policies and practices of 20 private financial service organizations such as private banks, insurance companies, financing companies, NGOs and money lending firms of Bangladesh, along with some recommendations to improve relationship, participations and job satisfaction of the employees.

 

Objectives of the Study

 

The objectives of the research are to measure employee’s satisfaction on the OB and Industrial psychology practices and to investigate the relationships between EI, employee satisfaction and job performance. While a large number of researches have been conducted on organizational behaviours but the amount of research on the relationship among Emotional Intelligence (EI), employee satisfaction (ES) and job performance (JP) is very few in Bangladesh context. In order to explore the relationships among them, the current study is an attempt for achievement of two major objectives of the private sector financial organizations in Bangladesh.

 

  1. General Objective

 

To analyze the importance and relationships among human resource management, emotional intelligence, employee satisfaction and job performance by perceptions of the employee of some selected private financial organizations in Bangladesh.

 

  1. Specific Objectives

 

The specific objectives are:

  1. To find the relationship between EI and JP by perceptions of employee.
  2. To find the relationship between EI and HRM measured by JP of employee.
  3. To find the relationship between EI and industrial psychology by JP of employee.
  4. To find the relationship between EI and organizational behaviour by JP of employee.
  5. To find the relationships between perceptions and JP by EI of employee.
  6. To find the relationship between JP and HRM measured by EI of employee.
  7. To find the relationship between JP and industrial psychology by of EI employee.
  8. To find the relationship between JP and organizational behaviour by EI of employee.

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Many measures purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace. Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in your organization, can also be a downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with your work environment.6 Factors contributing to employee satisfaction include treating employees with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management within a success framework of goals, measurements, and expectations. Employee satisfaction is looked at in areas such as management, understanding of mission and vision, empowerment, teamwork, communication, and co-worker interaction. These elements depend on employee’s emotional intelligence and performance in job.7

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. It can be divided into ability EI and trait EI. Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the big five personality traits.8 For most people, emotional intelligence (EI) is more important than one’s intelligence (IQ) in attaining success in their lives and careers. As individuals our success and the success of the profession today depend on our ability to read other people’s signals and react appropriately to them. Therefore, each one of us must develop the mature emotional intelligence skills required to better understand, empathize and negotiate with other people, particularly as the economy has become more global. Otherwise, success will elude us in our lives and careers.9

Job performance is whether a person performs their job well. Job performance is studied in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. Job performance is also part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success. The work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed. Many business personnel directors assess the job performance of each employee on an annual or quarterly basis in order to help them identify suggested areas for improvement.10

 

Accordingly, the researchers have demonstrated that effective manager should have EI because it is considered important in inspiring subordinates and building strong relationships. Charismatic leaders must possess strong emotional convictions regarding their values and beliefs in their communication with have claimed that effective managers are recognised as using emotion to communicate a vision and to elicit responses from their subordinates.11 It has been found that leaders with high EI use positive emotions to improve their decision making leading to major improvements in organisational settings. Managers require managerial skills such as planning, organising, and controlling while leaders need to have EI and behavioural skills.12 EI plays an important role in managerial and leadership effectiveness. EI is considered to be important for job performance. Some researchers have theorized that job performance is influenced by employees’ ability to use emotions to facilitate performance. Employees could use both positive and negative emotions to their advantage to improve job performance. It has also been argued that emotionally intelligent individuals perform their jobs better than individuals with low EI.13

 

Developments in the field of HRM are now well documented in the management literature. The roots of HRM go back as far as the 1950s, when writers like Drucker and McGregor stressed the need for visionary goal-directed leadership and management of business integration. This was succeeded by the ‘behavioural science movement’ in the 1960s, headed by Maslow and Herzberg. These scholars emphasised the ‘value’ aspect of human resources (HR) in organisations and argued for a better quality of working life for workers. This formed the basis of the ‘organisational development movement’ initiated by Bennis in the 1970s. The ‘human resource accounting’ (HRA) theory developed by Flamholtz was an outcome of these sequential developments in the field of HRM and is considered to be the origin of HRM as a defined school of thought.14 HRA emphasised human resources as assets for any organisation. This ‘asset’ view began to gain support in the 1980s. The last twenty-five years or so have then witnessed rapid developments in the field of HRM, which are an outcome of a number of factors such as growing competition (mainly to US and UK firms by Japanese firms), slow economic growth in the Western developed nations, realisation about the prospects of HRM’s contribution towards firms’ performance, creation of HRM chairs in universities and HRM-specific positions in the industry, introduction of HRM into MBA curricula in the early 1980s, and a continuous emphasis on the involvement of HRM strategy in the business strategy.15 The above developments in the field of HRM highlight the contribution it can make towards business success and an emphasis on HRM to become an integral part of business strategy. The emergence of the term ‘strategic human resource management’ (SHRM) is an outcome of such efforts.16 It is largely concerned with ‘integration’ of HRM into the business strategy and ‘adaptation’ of HRM at all levels of the organisation.

 

Methodology of the Study

 

This study has been conducted using a quantitative research design. A convenience sampling method is used for data collection. This paper is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire which was administered personally to the employees of different financial service organizations. Data on EI, job performance, leadership styles and employee satisfaction has been collected from the employees working at different private sector financial organisations in Bangladesh. The target population of this study was employees in Dhaka and Narayangonj city Corporations who are serving as officers or executives of different private financial service organizations.

 

Data collection and analysis

 

Among various private banks, insurance companies, financing companies, NGOs and money lending firms this study considered 20 private organizations. For conducting this research, 55 employees of officers, executives and managers are selected from the chosen organizations and out of this 50 employees responses properly, the response rate is 90 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on eight HRM dimensions such as self-regulation, social skills, job security, career growth, training and development, working environment, job empathy and reward and motivation. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale, whereas- 1 = strongly dissatisfied, 2 = dissatisfied, 3 = neutral, 4 = satisfied and 5 = strongly satisfied.

 

But some secondary data have been used in the study. The secondary data used in the study have been collected from related journals, books, newspapers and internet, etc. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test mean and proportion analysis are used to examine employee’s satisfaction.

Hypothesis Development

 

On the basis of HRM practices and job performance of the employees, the following hypotheses were developed to understand the different categories of emotional intelligence:

H1: Employees’ satisfaction on self-regulation.

H2: Employees’ satisfaction on social skills.

H3: Employees’ satisfaction on job security.

H4: Employees’ satisfaction on career growth.

H5: Employees’ satisfaction on training and development.

H6: Employees’ satisfaction on working environment.

H7: Employees’ satisfaction on job empathy.

H8: Employees’ satisfaction on reward and motivation.

 

Analysis and Results

 

The four components of EI (self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) and four components of JP (job security, career growth, training and development, working environment) asked the employees to give their opinions concerning their own perception on a five-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly dissatisfied) to 5 (strongly satisfied). The higher score will indicate the higher EI of the employees. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for the purpose of the study, only the items of transformational and transactional leadership has been used. Employee satisfaction scales used to measure the perceived job performance of the employee’s participants have been asked to give their opinions regarding their own job performance. All data received from the survey have been entered into an Excel file for summarisation and then imported into the SPSS statistics database. Exploratory data analysis has been carried out first to determine the normality of the distributions of the variables. Descriptive statistics, such as, means (M), standard deviations (SD), standard error, mean rank and frequencies (N) have generated for relevant variables.

 

The following mentioned Tables 1 to 3 show the descriptive statistics of the respondents with their age and gender about minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation. Table 4 to 11 show frequency, valid percent and cumulative percent of eight hypotheses. Those table shows strongly disagree to strongly agree statements of the selected respondents to find the maximum frequency of their comments.

 


Table 1: Descriptive statistics showing mean, frequency and standard deviation

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Gender 50 1 2 1.90 .303
Age 50 1 4 2.22 .708
satisfaction on self-regulation 50 2 5 4.22 .708
satisfaction on social skills 50 2 5 4.24 .687
satisfaction on job security 50 1 5 3.98 .937
satisfaction on career growth 50 3 5 4.20 .639
satisfaction on training and development 50 1 5 3.90 .953
satisfaction on working environment 50 1 5 3.86 .969
satisfaction on job empathy 50 1 5 4.08 .804
satisfaction on reward and motivation 50 1 5 4.14 .833
Valid N 50

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-1 sample size is 50, where gender of participants are 1=male and 2= female; age started from 18 to 50 up ranked as 1 to 4. Eight hypotheses mean and standard deviation also give to find the relationship among HRM practices, Organizational Behaviour and Industrial Psychology.

 

Table 2: Gender percentage of male and female respondents

Gender of Employees

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Male 45 90.0 90.0 90.0
Female 5 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-2 male is 45 and female respondents is 05, total is 50 respondents.

 

 

Table 3: Age percentage of male and female respondents

Age of Employees

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
18-29 5 10.0 10.0 10.0
30-39 32 64.0 64.0 74.0
40-49 10 20.0 20.0 94.0
Above 50 3 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-3 age between 18-29 was 05, age between 30-39 was 32, age between 40-49 was 10, age above 50 was 03.

 

 

Table 4: Employee satisfaction on self-regulation

 

Employee satisfaction on self-regulation
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

Disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Neutral 5 10.0 10.0 12.0
Agree 26 52.0 52.0 64.0
Strongly agree 18 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-4 maximum number of frequency found 26 (52%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “disagree”.

 

Table 5: Employee satisfaction on social skills

 

Employee satisfaction on social skills
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
neutral 4 8.0 8.0 10.0
agree 27 54.0 54.0 64.0
strongly agree 18 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-5 maximum number of frequency found 27 (54%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “disagree”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6: Employee satisfaction on job security

 

Employee satisfaction on job security
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

strongly disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
disagree 5 10.0 10.0 12.0
neutral 1 2.0 2.0 14.0
agree 30 60.0 60.0 74.0
strongly agree 13 26.0 26.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-6 maximum number of frequency found 30 (60%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “strongly disagree”.

 

Table 7: Employee satisfaction on training and development

 

Employee satisfaction on training and development
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

strongly disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
disagree 4 8.0 8.0 10.0
neutral 7 14.0 14.0 24.0
agree 25 50.0 50.0 74.0
strongly agree 13 26.0 26.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-7 maximum number of frequency found 25 (50%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “strongly disagree”.

 

Table 8: Employee satisfaction on career growth

 

Employee satisfaction on career growth
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

Valid

neutral 6 12.0 12.0 12.0
agree 28 56.0 56.0 68.0
strongly agree 16 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In table-8 maximum number of frequency found 28 (56%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 06 (12%) with statement of “no comments”.

 

 

Table 9: Employee satisfaction on working environment

 

Employee satisfaction on working environment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

strongly disagree 2 4.0 4.0 4.0
disagree 3 6.0 6.0 10.0
neutral 6 12.0 12.0 22.0
agree 28 56.0 56.0 78.0
strongly agree 11 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-9 maximum number of frequency found 28 (56%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 02 (04%) with statement of “strongly disagree”.

 

Table 10: Employee satisfaction on job empathy

 

Employee satisfaction on job empathy
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

strongly disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
disagree 1 2.0 2.0 4.0
neutral 5 10.0 10.0 14.0
agree 29 58.0 58.0 72.0
strongly agree 14 28.0 28.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-10 maximum number of frequency found 29 (58%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “strongly disagree”.

 

Table 11: Employee Satisfaction on reward and motivation

 

Employee Satisfaction on reward and motivation
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
 

 

Valid

strongly disagree 1 2.0 2.0 2.0
disagree 1 2.0 2.0 4.0
neutral 5 10.0 10.0 14.0
agree 26 52.0 52.0 66.0
strongly agree 17 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Source: Statistical analysis using SPSS software

 

In Table-11 maximum number of frequency found 26 (52%) with statement of “agree” from total of 50 frequency using 5 point Likert scale and minimum number of frequency found 01 (02%) with statement of “strongly disagree”.

 

Out of the Tables 11, from the Tables 4 to 11 show strongly dissatisfaction to strongly satisfaction frequency ranked from 1 to 5 to find the relationship among Employee Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, Employee Satisfaction and Job Performance. From the statistical analysis of the hypotheses and 5-point Likert scale this study found that there is a strong relationship among human resource management, emotional intelligence, employee satisfaction and job performance by perceptions of the employee. All the independent variables have importance to determine employee satisfaction through HRM and OB practices of the selected private financial organizations in Bangladesh.

 

Limitations of the Study

Researcher was really unable to collect enough information due to official restrictions of the selected private sector financial organizations. Many things were so confidential that was not entitled to access there. To the best of knowledge of the researcher very little study was conducted on this specific area, that’s why there is lack of guidance. This study was based on HRM, OB and Industrial Psychology practices in the business. So information was designed on the basis of those dimensions only.

 

Findings of the Study

 

The study has discovered the following findings from this study:

  1. The study disclosed the relationship between employees’ satisfaction and various dimensions of HRM, OB and Industrial psychology 17
  2. In this study, we considered nine major factors which represented most of the human resources management practices followed by different private financial service organizations.
  3. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private financial service organizations of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with some of the dimensions.18
  4. It is obvious that HRM practices in the private financial service organizations of Bangladesh have not been fully developed.
  5. There is the urgent need to employ the services of HR professionals, consultants, psychologists and researchers to help shape and develop new directional focus that will ensure an efficient and effective human resource practices.19

 

Recommendations of the Study

 

The study suggests the following recommendations for doing perfect HRM practices.

  1. Organizations should give various financial and non-financial benefits to employees according to their performance. This will make them more devoted to the work and their satisfaction will be definitely high.20
  2. The organizations should prepare the standard human resource planning. Because the success and failure of organizations is highly dependent on the proper human resource planning.
  3. The employee training program of the organizations is a good way to groom a to-be– manager for the probable vacancy in the future.21
  4. The organization should establish motivational and leadership program to build a positive work environment.
  5. The organization should regularly follow performance appraisal procedure to build a productive and valuable workforce.22
  6. The selection tools and procedures used in the program of self development have also provided to be very effective that shows in Table-4 maximum number of frequency found 26 (52%) with statement of “agree” of Likert scale from total of 50 frequency.
  7. The company should follow both on-the-job and off-the –job method of training when they are training their employees. On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. 23
  8. The financial organizations should be analyzed the organizational jobs properly to serves as the functions in order to evaluate the different positions of employees for well conceived pay-structure.
  9. Before appraising the performance of employees in the organization properly, there should establish the standard performance of all employees in the organization without showing any discrimination.24
  10. The HRD manager should prepare the standard promotion policy for the employees of the organization to increase the competitions and more employee satisfaction in the organizations.
  11. The HRD manager should establish the standard pay structure for the employees of the organization in order to reduce the high turnover of employees. Because most of the employees are dissatisfied in present pay structure of their working organizations.25
  12. The organizations should use suitable techniques for assessing the performance of employees to increase more satisfaction in their job and positions.

 

Conclusion

 

This study shows that in the financial organizations employees are provided on EI, JP and EP. However this study found a positive relationship between EI and leadership and JP and motivation styles. Thus, a better understanding of the relationships can also enhance the body of knowledge from the academic perspective. The studies of EI, leadership styles, job performance, motivation and employee satisfaction are important in the field of OB, HRM and Psychology. Now a day’s organisations are desperately looking for innovative ways to attain and retain their competitive advantage. A successful leadership practices and job performance is recognised as a high priority to practitioners as well as business leaders. Findings from the analysis may help employee and employer to identify emotionally intelligent employees to facilitate job performance in the private sector financial organisations in Bangladesh.

 

References

 

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